GENERALIZATION OF EINSTEIN’S IDEA OF THE PHOTOELECTRIC WORK FUNCTION: EXAMPLE FROM SCANDINAVIAN CLIMATE DATA

GENERALIZATION OF EINSTEIN WORK FUNCTION (11FEB14)

ON THE GENERALIZATION OF EINSTEIN’S IDEA OF THE PHOTOELECTRIC WORK FUNCTION: EXAMPLE FROM SCANDINAVIAN CLIMATE DATA

A linear law, with a nonzero intercept c, of the type y = hx + c = h(x – x0), is often observed when we analyze our (x, y) observations on a number of complex systems. The climate system data is considered here for illustrative purposes. The nonzero c in such a law is like the nonzero work function W, conceived by Einstein, in 1905, to explain the photoelectric effect. Einstein’s law was thus able to explain the cut-off frequency observed experimentally by Lenard.  Likewise, there is a cut-off x0 = -c/h. The photoelectric law implies a movement of the empirical observations along a family of parallel lines. A similar movement along parallels is observed if we analyze our (x, y) observations carefully. The method of deducing the existence of such parallels is also discussed and is traced to the method used by Millikan to determine the two universal constants: the absolute magnitude on the charge q on a single electron and the Planck constant h.

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BAFFLED BY (STALLING OF) GLOBAL WARMING: NO NEED TO BE

UNIVERSALLAWGATLett1

BAFFLED BY (STALLING OF) GLOBAL WARMING

A recent media article, by Pilita Clark, that appeared in the Financial Times (February 9. 2014), see link given, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/37930724-917a-11e3-adde-00144feab7de.html
is based on some recent findings of the IPCC, which attributes the “stalling” to strong Pacific trade winds.

Please note that my analysis of the global average temperature data, from 1880-2013 (which I have called attention to in earlier posts here and on my Facebook page, Global Warming for the Layman), leaves no room for this kind of “baffling” or “riddles” in climate science.

The global average temperature T, plotted versus time t in years, follows the simple law T = A + Bt. The data falls on a family of parallels with the same fixed slope B and varying values of the nonzero intercept A. I have shown that there are at least five parallels – not two but five  parallels – all having the same fixed slope B, which is a measure of the rate of increase of the global average temperature (warming rate, or heating rate). However, the nonzero intercept A is also important and determines the absolute magnitude of the global average temperature T. The more negative the nonzero intercept A, the lower will be the temperature, although the temperatures are still increasing.

Climate science, as I realized and have shared here, ignores the absolute magnitude of the global average temperature T and instead is focused on what is called the temperature anomalies, the difference between T and some baseline, now taken as the global average temperature for the 20th century by NASA GISS (Goddard Institute of Space Studies) and also by NCDC (National Climate Data Center). The focus on temperature anomaly (TA), instead of T, has been a barrier to the recognition of the fact that the earth is actually cooler than it would have been if the temperature had continued to rise along the parallels (dashed lines with positive slope) corresponding to earlier periods of the 20th century, see Figure 2 of the attached file.

A critical examination of the global average temperature data, while paying attention to the absolute values of the temperature T. Please note that the term “absolute” is NOT to be confused with absolute temperatures based on the Kelvin scale used in scientific work; it is simply the temperatures measured in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit, without introducing the anomaly calculation. The temperature anomaly (TA) is given by the equation, 

TA = T – TB

where TB is the global average temperature for the base-period, which is now taken as the average value for the 20th century, i.e., the average over 1901-2000. More detailed discussion of the 21st century data can also be found in the references to this article being uploaded here. (The references are NOT published yet but can be obtained by contacting me.)

EVOLUTION OF NONLINEARITY IN THE RUSSIAN PRECIPITATION-TEMPERATURE DATA

RGInfinityparadoxpost

In the attached I have discussed how nonlinearity arises as we analyze the Russian data for precipitation reported by several weather stations (184 total). This also been posted in response to a question on nonlinearity posed by Prof. Derek Abbott, which is reproduced below.

 

Question

The paradox of infinity: where does the nonlinearity come from?

The principle of linear superposition holds for the integers, eg. 3 + 4 = 7. However, when we take the integers out to infinity we now obtain nonlinear behaviour. Infinity plus any amount is still infinity, so linearity has broken down.

TOWARDS A NEW PHYSICS OF GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE SCIENCE

ON A SIMPLE AVERAGE TEMPERATURE PRECIPITATION RELATION (05feb14)

TOWARDS A NEW PHYSICS OF GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE SCIENCE

The term evaporation is used to describe the transformation of liquid water into its gaseous form, at ordinary temperatures, well below the boiling point. We expect evaporation rates to increase with increasing temperature. Does that mean precipitation will also follow same trend? That is, will precipitation, as observed locally, increase with increasing local average temperatures?

Precipitation is the opposite of evaporation – water coming back to the earth as rain or snow. For this, a study of the observational data reveals both types of trends, precipitation P increasing with increasing temperature T, and precipitation decreasing with increasing temperatures and also a maximum point on the graph of precipitation versus the average temperatures; all deduced empirically. The existence of a maximum point on the P-T graph implies that there is an optimum temperature for precipitation.

In this first article, I have reported the trends observed in UK, USA, Germany, Australia, Malaysia, Ecuador and Singapore. The P-T graph for all these countries reveals a negative slope. Since this article was completed, the opposite trend with the positive slope has been confirmed (prompting the note included in the appendix), quite unmistakably, with the data for China. And, both the Russia and Mongolia data show positive and negative slopes with a maximum point on the graph of temperature-precipitation graph.

So, why is there is a maximum point? Perhaps, this is analogous to the appearance of a maximum point of the blackbody radiation curve. As is well known, the attempts to explain this maximum point, theoretically, led to the birth of quantum physics.  

Following this train of thought would lead us to a new physics for global warming, or the science of climate change. In his new theory, Planck essentially describes a method of determining the average value U = UN/N of some property of interest where N is the number of microscopic entities and UN is the total value of the property of interest. In Planck’s original theory, the microscopic entities are called resonators and U is the average energy of the resonators and UN their total energy with N being a very very large integer.

A generalization of the Planck-Einstein ideas, well beyond physics, to many other branches is possible, if we recognize that Planck is trying to determine the average value of some property for a very complex system [59, 60]. This has been discussed by the present author in several articles which have been made available in non-peered publications [37, 38].

EVIDENCE FOR A UNIVERSAL LAW DESCRIBING THE TEMPERATURE-TIME RELATION FOR THE EARTH’S CLIMATE STSTEM

Sunriseon28jan2014(Rev2)

EVIDENCE FOR A UNIVERSAL LAW DESCRIBING TEMPERATURE-TIME RELATION FOR THE EARTH’S CLIMATE SYSTEM

This is an updated and revised file that was posted earlier. (Sorry, I wish I could figure out how to delete old files and upload a revised file, making this post unnecessary.) 

When light, a stream of photons with energy E = hf, shines on the surface of a metal, it produces electrons with a maximum kinetic energy K, given by K = E – W = hf – W where h is the Planck constant, f is the frequency of light and W is the work function of the metal upon which light is shining. W represents the energy that must be given up to bring the electron out of the metal. This is the photoelectric law conceived by Einstein in 1905. 

Likewise, when the sun rises and shines upon the earth, the solar energy flux (also called the solar irradiance, energy per unit time per unit surface area, measured in Watts per square meter) causes the temperature T to start rising. According to the kinetic theory of gases, the temperature T of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules of the gas. Thus, the observed annual global average temperature can be taken as an accurate measure of the energy that has been transferred to the earth from the sun. 

I found something interesting about the temperature-time relationship over the last few weeks, by studying both the climate (and weather) data at various levels, at the local level of single city, at the national level of a  single country, and also at the global level. The law can be shown to be a simple linear law of the type T = A + Bt where the nonzero intercept A, in my opinion, is exactly similar to the work function conceived by Einstein to explain photoelectricity.

I have been testing the universal applicability of this law since it became obvious to me, recently, during the bitterly cold spell that we have been experiencing in the USA, which got me interested in studying the weather and/or climate data at various levels. The temperature-time data for both Detroit, MI and London, UK, for the full month of December 2013 and (the to-date) January 2014 can be shown to follow this simple law. The global average temperature data, from 1880-2013, can also be shown to obey the same law. As with the photoelectricity experiment, where the K-f graph yields a family of parallels (for different metals, each with its own work function W), the T-t graph is also a family of parallels, with a fixed slope B and a nonzero intercept A, which can be compared to Einstein’s work function. I have deduced the equations for these parallels by considering several (x, y) pairs in the datasets at various levels. It should be noted that Millikan arrives at the absolute magnitude q of the electrical charge on a single electron (in his famous oil drop experiments) and then the numerical value of the Planck constant h from the photoelectric measurements, by using exactly the method just described. He considers various (x, y) pairs in his dataset to show the constancy of q. He does the same with the K-f measurements, where K = qVo with Vo being the stopping potential measured by Millikan (for two metals lithium and sodium). 

I have uploaded a pdf file with some figures discussing these findings on my Facebook page, see the group Global Warming for the Layman, https://www.facebook.com/groups/GWforlayman/

THE HISTORICAL CLIMATE DATA FOR YAKUTSK, RUSSIA, ONE OF THE COLDEST CITIES ON EARTH

YakutskRussiahistoricaldata1

THE HISTORICAL CLIMATE DATA FOR YAKUTSK, RUSSIA, ONE OF THE COLDEST CITIES ON EARTH

This is a slightly revised version of the document posted earlier. (Sorry, wish I can figure out how to delete files that were uploaded in the earlier post, making this unnecessary!) The historical temperatures data for this city, recently featured in a Weather Channel article, is plotted in Figures 2 and 3. Classical statistical methods lead to the conclusion that the annual average temperature has been increasing. However, a more careful examination reveals the movement of the temperature data along the parallels seen in Figure 3. This means that the average annual temperature in 2013, although higher than in 196os, is actually lower than it would have been had the trend illustrated by the parallel V continued. The temperature-time data at the local level, here the coldest city on earth, thus reveals a work function (the nonzero intercept A) as with global average temperature data.

Here’s the link to the website from which the temperature data was obtained, http://www.tutiempo.net/en/Climate/Jakutsk/03-2013/249590.htm

A UNIVERSAL LAW FOR THE TEMPERATURE-TIME RELATION FOR THE EARTH’S CLIMATE SYSTEM

Sunriseon28jan2014Sunriseon28jan2014Sunriseon28jan2014Sunriseon28jan2014

In my first post here, I uploaded the photo of the sun rising this morning, at 7:55 am, on January 28, 2014 (taken with my iPad).

When light, a stream of photons with energy E = hf, shines on the surface of a metal, it produces electrons with a maximum kinetic energy K, given by K = E – W = hf – W where h is the Planck constant, f is the frequency of light and W is the work function of the metal upon which light is shining. W represents the energy that must be given up to bring the electron out of the metal. This is the photoelectric law conceived by Einstein in 1905. 

Likewise, when the sun rises and shines upon the earth, the solar energy flux (also called the solar irradiance, energy per unit time per unit surface area, measured in Watts per square meter) causes the temperature T to start rising. I found something interesting about the temperature-time relationship over the last few weeks, by studying both the climate (and weather) data at various levels, at the local level of single city, at the national level of a  single country, and also at the global level. The law can be shown to be a simple linear law of the type T = A + Bt where the nonzero intercept A, in my opinion, is exactly similar to the work function conceived by Einstein to explain photoelectricity.

I have been testing the universal applicability of this law since it became obvious to me, recently, during the bitterly cold spell that we have been experiencing in the USA, which got me interested in studying the weather and/or climate data at various levels. The temperature-time data for both Detroit, MI and London, UK, for the full month of December 2013 and (the to-date) January 2014 can be shown to follow this simple law. The global average temperature data, from 1880-2013, can also be shown to obey the same law. As with the photoelectricity experiment, where the K-f graph yields a family of parallels (for different metals, each with its own work function W), the T-t graph is also a family of parallels, with a fixed slope B and a nonzero intercept A, which can be compared to Einstein’s work function. I have deduced the equations for these parallels by considering several (x, y) pairs in the datasets at various levels. It should be noted that Millikan arrives at the absolute magnitude q of the electrical charge on a single electron (in his famous oil drop experiments) and then the numerical value of the Planck constant h from the photoelectric measurements, by using exactly the method just described. He considers various (x, y) pairs in his dataset to show the constancy of q. He does the same with the K-f measurements, where K = qVo with Vo being the stopping potential measured by Millikan (for two metals lithium and sodium). 

I have uploaded a pdf file with some figures discussing these findings on my Facebook page, see the group Global Warming for the Layman, https://www.facebook.com/groups/GWforlayman/