ON THE GENERALIZATION OF EINSTEIN’S IDEA OF THE PHOTOELECTRIC WORK FUNCTION: EXAMPLE FROM SCANDINAVIAN CLIMATE DATA
A linear law, with a nonzero intercept c, of the type y = hx + c = h(x – x0), is often observed when we analyze our (x, y) observations on a number of complex systems. The climate system data is considered here for illustrative purposes. The nonzero c in such a law is like the nonzero work function W, conceived by Einstein, in 1905, to explain the photoelectric effect. Einstein’s law was thus able to explain the cut-off frequency observed experimentally by Lenard. Likewise, there is a cut-off x0 = -c/h. The photoelectric law implies a movement of the empirical observations along a family of parallel lines. A similar movement along parallels is observed if we analyze our (x, y) observations carefully. The method of deducing the existence of such parallels is also discussed and is traced to the method used by Millikan to determine the two universal constants: the absolute magnitude on the charge q on a single electron and the Planck constant h.
THE HISTORICAL CLIMATE DATA FOR YAKUTSK, RUSSIA, ONE OF THE COLDEST CITIES ON EARTH
This is a slightly revised version of the document posted earlier. (Sorry, wish I can figure out how to delete files that were uploaded in the earlier post, making this unnecessary!) The historical temperatures data for this city, recently featured in a Weather Channel article, is plotted in Figures 2 and 3. Classical statistical methods lead to the conclusion that the annual average temperature has been increasing. However, a more careful examination reveals the movement of the temperature data along the parallels seen in Figure 3. This means that the average annual temperature in 2013, although higher than in 196os, is actually lower than it would have been had the trend illustrated by the parallel V continued. The temperature-time data at the local level, here the coldest city on earth, thus reveals a work function (the nonzero intercept A) as with global average temperature data.